C     I     L     I     C     I     A     N          A    R     M     E    N     I    A

T    H    E           R    U    B    E    N    I    D          D    Y    N    A    S    T    Y



COAT OF ARMS OF CILICIAN ARMENIA:
RED LION RAMPANT WEARING A GOLDEN CROWN
UPON A GOLDEN SHIELD.



THE FLAG OF THE KINGDOM OF CILICIAN ARMENIA DURING THE
RUBENID DYNASTY. RED LION RAMPANT WEARING
A WHITE CROWN FACING LEFT. THE DIRECTION WOULD
VARY AND TWIN LIONS [AROUND THE POLE/TREE OF LIFE]
WERE ALSO USED IN THE OFFICIAL SEALS
AND COINS OF THE KINGDOM CONNOTING THE DUAL UNION
OF THE KINGDOM [STATE/PEOPLE] AND DYNASTY [GOVERNMENT]
OF THE MONARCHY.






S E A S C A P E    V I E W    O F    T H E    I S L A N D  C A S T L E    O F    A N A M O U R


 

XITH CENTURY SEALS AND COINS OF ARMENIAN AND ALLIED CRUSADER RULERS.



SEAL OF BARON PHILARETE. CA. 1070.



SEAL OF BARON TATUL OF MARA. CA. 1100.



SEAL OF BARON ABELŁARIB OF TARSUS. CA 1070.



SEAL OF BARON HETUM [1110-1140] HETUMID.



SEAL OF PRINCE TANCREDE, PRINCE OF ANTIOCH. CA. 1110.
 



SEAL OF RUDOLF [RAUL] OF DOMFRONT, PRINCE OF ANTIOCH. CA 1140.



SEAL OF QUEEN MORFIA [DAUGHTER OF ARMENIAN BARON GABRIEL OF MALATIA]
WHO BECAME QUEEN OF JERUSALEM AFTER MARRYING KING BALDWIN OF BOURG
IN 1118.



SEAL OF BARON T‛OROS I RUBENID. CA. 1115



COIN OF BARON T‛OROS I RUBENID.



ROYAL INSIGNIA OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT. TWO LIONS [FACING
EACH OTHER] FLANKING THE  PATRIARCHAL DOUBLE-BAR CROSS.



VERY RARE COIN [ONLY FIVE EXEMPLARS ARE KNOWN TO EXIST TODAY]
OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT STRUCK IN 1187 IN HONOR OF
 HIS BARONIAL INDUCTION.



THE LION [LEO/LEON/LEVON] THE VERY SYMBOL OF THE SUN WITH
THE PATRIARCHAL CROSS [OF LORRAINE] ON THE BACK [SIMILAR
TO OTHER COAT OF ARMS WITH SUNBURST ON THE BACK OF
THE LION [SIGN OF LEO]. WITH THE ASTERISK [MACROCOSM].



THE EQUAL ARM + CROSS ON TOP OF THE CROSS OF LORRAINE TOGETHER FORMS
TWO UNITED Es FACING RIGHT AND LEFT [THE SACRED SYMBOL OF THE DELPHIC
ORACLES - AS WELL AS THE PAPAL CROSS CARRIED BY THE SUPREME PONTIFF
IN CONTINUATION OF THE PONTIFEX MAXIMUS OF THE ĒA-HAYA-ENKI-JUPITER
STAFF OF DIVINITY].



 RESEARCH AND PRESENTATION OF THIS RARE BARONIAL COIN OF
LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT BY MICHAEL DENNIS OHARA IN THE
ARMENIAN NUMISMATIC JOURNAL. OHARA POINTED OUT THE
FINE WORKMANSHIP OF THE NOTED COIN OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT
AS A PROTOTYPE OF LATER RENAISSANCE PORTRAITURE COINS AND
OTHER ARTISTIC MEDIUMS.



KARDEZ OF KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT (1187-1219).
OBVERSE: [INNER RIM] THE CROWNED LION/SPHINX [LION KING].
THE WRAP AROUND ARMENIAN INSCRIPTION [OUTER RIM] READS:
LEVON KING OF ARMENIA.



KARDEZ COIN OF KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT (1187-1219)
REVERSE: [INNER RIM] THE PATRIARCHAL CROSS [DOUBLE BAR CROSS OF
LORRAINE] WITH TWO FLANKING PENTAGRAMS. THE CROSS STANDS UPON
TWO HORIZONTAL LINES. THE WRAP AROUND [DIV. BY EQUAL ARM CROSS]
ARMENIAN INSCRIPTION [OUTER RIM] READS:  MINTED IN THE CITY OF SIS.



VAHKA WAS THE IMPREGNABLE RUBENID FORTRESS THAT WAS THE NUCLEUS THAT
UNITED WITH OTHER ARMENIAN NOBLE HOUSES LIKE THE HETUMIDS [CENTERED IN
AND AROUND LAMBRON FORTRESS] TO FORM THE KINGDOM OF CILICIAN ARMENIA
[BORDERING ARMENIA MINOR AND ARMENIA MAJOR OR GREATER AND LESSER
ARMENIAS]. SIS, TARSUS, ADANA, ALEXANDRETTA [LIKE AYAS A VITAL PORT IN
THE ARMENIAN GULF] AND AYAS BECAME RENOWNED INTERNATIONAL
CITIES OF CULTURE, TRADE AND COMMERCE BETWEEN THE XITH-XIVTH CENTURIES.
HROMKLA [TO THE WEST] ALTHOUGH WAS POLITICALLY OUTSIDE OF THE BORDERS
OF THE CILICIAN KINGDOM WAS AN ARMENIAN FIEFDOM -- THE SEAT
OF THE CATHOLICOSATE UNTIL 1441 [FROM HENCEFORTH THE SEAT
OF THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH RETURNED TO THE ORIGINAL
MOTHER CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY SEE IN ECHMIADZIN] WHILE THE
PRINCIPALITY OF ANTIOCH BECAME A VASSAL ALLY OF THE ARMENIAN
KINGDOM DURING THE REIGN OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT [LED BY LEVON'S SON
RUBEN-RAYMOND].


XIXTH CENTURY PAINTING OF THE CILICIAN PASS.

XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE FALLS OF CYDNUS ON TARSUS RIVER.


XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE RUINS OF THE AMPHITHEATRE ON
THE OUTSKIRTS OF BAMBAKABERD FORTRESS.


XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF A SECTION OF THE OLD CITY OF TARSUS.

XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE BRIDGE OF ADANA THAT LEADS TO CITY GATES.
THE CITY WAS ONE OF THE CAPITALS OF CILICIAN ARMENIA.


RUINS OF THE CILICIAN GATE. PAINTING BY WILLIAM J. BARTLETT MADE IN 1830s.



COIN OF PRINCE LEVON II [PRIOR TO CORONATION - 1187/1198] OF BARONY OF CILICIA.
OBVERSE: KNIGHT LEFT ON HORSEBACK, ARMOR AND SHIELD.

REVERSE: CROSS PATTE, ANNULETS AT ENDS OF CROSS
BARS, CRESCENTS IN QUARTERS.


PORTION OF THE IMPOSING RUINS OF VAHKA FORTRESS. THE NUCLEUS OF
THE RUBENID PRINCES AND ARMENIAN KNIGHTS.


GENERAL PLAN OF THE FORTRESS OF VAHKA.


19TH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE RUINS OF THE CAPITAL SIS. THE STRONGHOLD
FORTRESS OF VAHKA WAS THE HEART OF THE RUBENID BARONY AND THE CAPITAL
WAS LATER MOVED TO NEARBY SIS. THE LARGEST CITY OF CILICIAN ARMENIA
WAS TARSUS WHERE THE ARMENIAN KINGS WERE OFTEN CROWNED.


GROUND PLAN OF THE CASTLE [CITADEL] OF SIS OVERLOOKING THE CAPITAL.


1834 ENGRAVING BY WILLIAM BARKER OF THE CATHOLICOSAL PALACE AT SIS.



THE COIN OF PRINCE RUBEN II [1175-1187] OF CILICIAN ARMENIA.
OBVERSE: CASTLE WITH TWO PLATFORMS, CLOCKWISE LEGEND
RUBĒN ORDI STEPANĒI
[RUBEN SON OF STEPHEN]. REVERSE: CROSS, WITH
CLOCKWISE LEGEND KAROŁUTBN  AY 
Ē [BY THE POWER OF GOD].

LETTER OF KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT (1187-1219) TO POPE INNOCENT III.
FROM VICTOR LANGLOIS [REPRINTED BY ARMEN GHAZARIAN], 1863.

LETTER OF POPE INNOCENT III (1198-1216) TO KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT.
FROM VICTOR LANGLOIS [REPRINTED BY ARMEN GHAZARIAN], 1863.

RUINS OF BODRUM CASTLE.



COIN OF KING LEVON I THE MAGNIFICENT. STRUCK FOR INTERNAL AND
EXTERNAL CIRCULATION. OBVERSE: CROWNED BUST OF KING FACING. INSCRIPTION
READS X.REX ARMENOR. ARMENIAN CURRENCY BECAME
VERY POPULAR IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS. KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT ISSUED
THE COINS IN LATIN [ALONG WITH ARMENIAN] INSCRIPTIONS IN THE ANTIOCH STYLE.
KING LEVON PLACED HIS SON RAYMOND-RUBEN AS COUNT OF THE PRINCIPALITY OF
ANTIOCH.

COIN OF KING LEVON I THE MAGNIFICENT. STRUCK FOR INTERNAL AND
EXTERNAL CIRCULATION. REVERSE: X.LEO DEI GRATIA AROUND THE
CROSS PATTEE.


RUINS OF VISHAPABERD [LIT. DRAGON FORTRESS] CASTLE.

GENERAL PLAN OF VISHAPABERD CASTLE.


ARIAL VIEW OF THE IMPOSING RUINS OF VISHAPABERD CASTLE [NEAR ADANA] ON A
HUGE HIGH CLIFF OVERLOOKING ALL OF THE NEARBY COUNTRYSIDE WITH A 360.

GENERAL PLAN OF KANTA FORTRESS.


THE RUINS OF LEVONBERD CASTLE. ONE OF THE MANY CITIES AND CITADELS
 ERECTED DURING THE REIGN OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT [1187-1219].


PLAN OF PORT MEGARSUS.

XIXTH CENTURY WOODCUT OF ĈANĈI CASTLE.


PLAN OF PORT ALAYA.


XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE RUINS OF AN AQUEDUCT AT LAMUS.


PLAN OF PORT SIDE.


XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF A RUINED CHURCH IN KANNITĒL.


PLAN OF MOUTE CASTLE.

XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE RUINS OF MAMESTIA [MSIS, MAMISTRA]
TWO MAIN BRIDGES LEADING TO THE CITY WALLS.

XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE MEDIEVAL MSIS BRIDGE LEADING TO
MAMESTIA.



MXITAR OF HER [XOY OR KHOY] BORN CA. 112O IN HER. RENOWNED ARMENIAN
DOCTOR, BIOLOGIST, HERBALIST, AND PHILOSOPHER. DOCTOR MXITAR [WHICH
LITERALLY MEANS CONSOLER RELATED TO HEALER] WAS THE HEAD COURT
DOCTOR IN THE CAPITAL SIS, CILICIAN ARMENIA [ALSO KNOWN AS
LITTLE ARMENIA SOMETIMES MISTAKENLY CALLED LESSER ARMENIA WHICH IS
 IMMEDIATELY NEXT TO CILICIAN ARMENIA]. THE GOOD DOCTOR WAS
UNDER DIRECT PATRONAGE OF TWO SUCCESSIVE CATHOLICOI IN SIS, FIRST NO
OTHER THAN NERSES THE GRACIOUS AND AFTERWARDS, GREGORY IV TŁAY. IN
ADDITION TO ARMENIAN, DR. MXITAR WAS FLUENT IN GREEK, ARABIC AND FARSI.
BY 1160s HERATSI WAS ALREADY KNOWN AS 'THE GRAND DOCTOR.'

N E R S E S   T H E   G R A C I O U S [b. 1100 - d. 1173]. AN OUTSTANDING
PHILOSOPHER, POET, WRITER AND COMPOSER OF COSMIC HYMNS. CANONIZED BY THE
CHURCH FOR HIS DEDICATION TO SEEING THE IMPROVEMENT OF MANKIND
IN ITS UNIVERSAL VALUES AND MORALS.



T‛UM CASTLE ERECTED DURING THE REIGN OF KING LEVON II THE MAGNIFICENT.
THE CASTLE GUARDED THE CITY OF ANAZARBA. THE CASTLE IS UPON A STEEP
HILL OVERLOOKING THE COUNTRYSIDE. ENFORCED WITH THICK WALLS AND
ADJOINING WATCHTOWERS. THE CASTLE HAS BEEN INGENIOUSLY CONSTRUCTED
SO THAT A SMALL GARRISON CAN DEFEND THE FORTRESS THROUGHOUT THE
ENTIRE CIRCUMFERENCE.

GENERAL PLAN OF
T‛UM CASTLE.

XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF TEMPLE RUINS IN SELEUCIA.


GENERAL PLAN OF THE FORTRESS OF SELEUCIA.

XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF THE RUINS OF THE CASTLE OF SELEUCIA.


XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF ALAYA CASTLE.



A BEAUTIFULLY DECORATED ARMENIAN CHALICE FROM XIIITH CENTURY THAT
WAS FOUND IN VILGORT, IN THE URALS (!) IN DISTANT SIBERIA.
A TESTAMENT OF THE VAST TRADE TIES THAT EXISTED DURING THE SILVER AGE OF
CILICIAN ARMENIA. THE CHALICE DEPICTS SCENES OF A ROYAL FEST WITH
THE KING PLAYING THE HARP. ON DISPLAY IN THE HERMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG.


THE WORLD-RENOWNED CILICIAN SCHOOL OF ARMENIAN GOLDSMITHS.
SIDE VIEW OF THE GOLDEN CHALICE  OF VILGORT.

THE BINDING OF THE 1248 BARJRBERD GOSPEL MADE IN SIX YEARS LATER IN
1254 IN HROMKLA. IN THE MUSEUM-DEPOSITORY [MS NO. 8] OF THE GREAT
HOUSE OF CILICIA, ANTILIAS, LEBANON.


GENERAL PLAN OF THE CITADEL OF THE CITY OF HROMKLA.
CATHOLICOSAL SEAT UNTIL 1441 WHEN IT RETURNED BACK TO VAŁARAPAT.

PAINTING BY WILLIAM BARTLETT [CA. 1835] OF THE CILICIAN PORT OF CELENDERIS.



A CORNER NICHE OF THE CHURCH OF ANARZABA [ANAVARZA] PROCLAIMED AS THE
CAPITAL OF CILICIAN ARMENIA IN 1110 BY TOROS I. THE ABOVE ARMENIAN INSCRIPTION
INCLUDES THE GENEALOGICAL LINEAGE OF EARLY RUBENID PRINCES. PHOTOGRAPH
TAKEN IN 1905 BY GERTRUDE BELL. THE CHURCH TODAY IS IN DILAPIDATED
AND RUNDOWN CONDITION JUST AS MUCH OF ARMENIAN HISTORIC MONUMENTS
THROUGHOUT WHAT IS TODAY TURKEY ARE...


THE RUINS OF ONE OF THE CHURCHES AT ANARZABA [ANAVARZA].


GENERAL PLAN OF THE FORTRESS OF ANARZABA [ANAVARZA].


GENERAL PLAN OF THE FORTRESS OF KAPAN.


CORONATION COIN OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT [1198/99]. OBVERSE: THE KING
KNEELING IN FRONT OF THE VIRGIN PATRONESS. REVERSE: TWO LIONS
FLANKING THE PATRIARCHAL STAFF/AXIS POLE UPON THE TRIUNE.


MANUSCRIPT WRITTEN BY CATHOLICOS NERSES THE GRACIOUS AFFIXED WITH HIS
PATRIARCHAL SEAL [THE LAMB OF GOD WITH THE HOLY BANNER WITHIN AN OVAL].


ST. NERSES THE GRACIOUS. FROM A XVITH CENTURY MANUSCRIPT.


NERSES THE GRACIOUS ON AN ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT FROM THE GOSPEL OF
STEPHEN OF VAHKA. CA. 1270.

THE SUPERB BEAUTY OF THE CILICIAN SCHOOL OF ARMENIAN ILLUMINATION...
DETAIL OF AN ILLUMINATED PAGE FROM THE GOSPEL OF ARCHBISHOP JOHN
ALSO KNOWN AS THE GOSPEL OF AKNER. 1289. THE MATENADARAN, YEREVAN.

SAINT GREGORY OF NAREK. 1173 ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT FROM
THE BOOK OF LAMENT BY GREGORY OF MLIČ. MATENADARAN MS NO. 1568.



TAGAVORAKAN [TAKVORIN] OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT. OBVERSE: KING ON THE DOUBLE
LION THRONE HOLDING THE ORB [SYMBOL OF PLANET EARTH] AND THE SCEPTER
IN THE FORM OF THE FLEUR-DE-LYS [ETERNITY/DIVINITY] IN HIS RIGHT AND LEFT
HANDS RESPECTIVELY. REVERSE: CROWNED LION/SPHINX HOLDING THE PATRIARCHAL
CROSS DOUBLE-BAR CROSS IN HIS RIGHT PAW.


THE SEAL OF KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT AFFIXED TO THE LETTER SENT TO
POPE INNOCENT III IN 1216. VATICAN SECRET ARCHIVES A.A. ARM. I-XVIII, 630.
THE KING ON THE DOUBLE-LION THRONE HOLDING THE ORD AND THE FLEUR-DE-LYS
SCEPTER IN HIS RIGHT AND LEFT HANDS RESPECTIVELY.
 



REVERSE SIDE OF THE SAME SEAL OF KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT SHOWING
THE SPHINX/LION [LEON/LEVON=LION THE SOLAR NAMESAKE OF THE KING]. HOLDING
THE CROSS PATTE UPON THE DIVINE STAFF/POLE [AXIS MUNDI].


XIXTH CENTURY ENGRAVING OF ARMENIAN CHURCH IN ALADJA.



LEVON [LEO[N] -- LION] THE MAGNIFICENT [R] -- GUY DE LUSIGNAN
AND THE ARMENIAN KNIGHTS OF THE CROWN. FROM CHRONOLOGIA MAGNA --
XIVTH CENTURY MANUSCRIPT.
THE LUSIGNAN DYNASTY SUCCEEDED THE HETUMID ROYALS
AFTER THE LATTER EXPIRED OF MALE HEIRS TO THE THRONE.



REVERSE OF THE GOLDEN COIN OF KING LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT.
DEPICTING THE NAMESAKE LION [LEO] OF THE KING  AS A SPHINX  -- THE
VERY SYMBOL OF THE HOUSE OF RUBEN AND THE KINGDOM OF ARMENIA.
THE SOLAR LION/SPHINX BEARS A STAFF TIPPED WITH THE EQUAL ARMED
CROSS (+) ALTERNATIVELY X STANDING FOR THE COSMIC GATE OF GODHOOD.



THE CROWNED LION/SPHINX CARRYING THE STAFF OF DIVINITY TIPPED
WITH THE EQUAL ARMED CROSS/CRUX. PERSONAL COAT OF ARMS OF NUMEROUS
ARMENIAN KINGS.

BALDWIN OF BOULOGNE IN FEBRUARY OF 1098 ENTERS EDESSA BY A WELCOMING
ARMENIAN NOBILITY AND CLERGY. BALDWIN PRESENTED HIMSELF AS THE
CHAMPION OF THE CHRISTIAN CAUSE IN THE EAST. HE INDEED HAVE A ZEAL OF
DEVOTION TO SEE CHRISTIAN SITES IN GOOD POSSESSION [ALTHOUGH MANY OTHER
CRUSADER LORDS OFTEN WERE DRIVEN BY MUCH MORE MATERIALISTIC MOTIVES
LIKE LOOTING AND PLUNDER OF THE MUSLIMS, INCLUDING SACRED SHRINES].
IT MUST BE NOTED THAT THE MUSLIMS ESPECIALLY OF EGYPT FOR EXAMPLE
WERE MOST OF THE TIME QUITE TOLERANT AND WELCOMING OF CHRISTIAN
PILGRIMS [SUCH EXAMPLES ARE REPLETE], SO THE CRUSADES THAT WERE OFTEN
CALLED UPON TO 'END THE SARACEN BRUTALITY AGAINST CHRISTIANS'
WERE MOST CERTAINLY GREATLY HYPED.

IN 1098 THE MAIN CRUSADING ARMY WAS HARASSED BY THE TURKS
WHEN BALDWIN OF BOULOGNE, BROKE OFF AND WENT TO CILICIAN ARMENIA
WHERE IN THE ARMENIAN PRINCIPALITY, BALDWIN FINALLY HE RECEIVED THE FIRST
MUCH NEEDED AID - INCLUDING WARM HOSPITALITY, FOOD, SHELTER AND ALL
KINDS OF RATIONS. THE CRUSADERS UNDER HIM MOVED TOWARDS THE ARMENIAN
PRINCIPALITY OF EDESSA [THE ANCIENT SACRED ARMENIAN SPIRITUAL CENTER OF
URHAI OR URFA]. THERE BALDWIN WAS ABLE TO PRESENT HIMSELF AS THE FIGHTER
FOR THE CHRISTIAN CAUSE AND WAS ABLE TO CONVINCE ARMENIAN PRINCE T‛OROS
TO ADOPT HIM AS HIS SON AND HEIR. LATER IN THAT YEAR, IN MARCH OF 1098
T‛OROS WAS ASSASSINATED BY DISGRUNTLED NOBLES [SUCH EVENTS
UNFORTUNATELY WERE NOT UNCOMMON DURING THIS TIME] AND BALDWIN WHO
 MOST PROBABLY DID NOT HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH THE ASSASSINATION BECAME
THE COUNT OF EDESSA [PRIOR TO THAT HE HELD THE TITLE AS THE COUNT OF
VERDUN - THE VASSAL OF HIS BROTHER IN FRANCE].
THUS EDESSA BECAME THE FIRST CRUSADER STATE [WITH PREDOMINANTLY
ARMENIAN POPULATION]  THAT WAS TO PLAY A KEY ROLE IN
ARMENO-FRANKISH ALLIANCE.


 IN 1100, BALDWIN BECAME THE KING OF JERUSALEM AFTER THE PASSING
OF HIS ELDER BROTHER GODFREY OF BOUILLON. THE COUNTY OF EDESSA
PASSED TO HIS COUSIN BALDWIN OF BOURCQ. HE WAS JOINED BY
JOSCELIN OF COURTENAY, WHO BECAME LORD OF THE FORTRESS
OF TURBESSEL AGAIN IN GREATER ARMENIA ON THE BANKS OF
EUPHRATES RIVER THAT WAS AN IMPORTANT OUTPOST AGAINST
MARAUDING SELJUK TURKS OF THE SULTANATE OF RUM [ICONIUM].

 


1286 MANUSCRIPT FROM THE MONASTERY OF ST. JOHN IN ACRE SHOWING
BALDWIN OF BOULOGNE DURING HIS REIGN IN THE COUNTY OF EDESSA.

THE FRANKISH ARISTOCRACY FORMED A CLOSE ALLIANCE WITH
ARMENIAN NOBILITY AND POPULATION AT LARGE AND THE INTERMARRIAGE
WAS SO COMMON THAT VIRTUALLY EVERY ARMENIAN KING HAD A
FRANKISH QUEEN AND VIRTUALLY EVERY CRUSADER LORD HAD
AN ARMENIAN WIFE. COUNT BALDWIN'S FIRST WIFE HAD DIED IN 1097
IN MARASH [MARACLEA/GERMANIK], CILICIAN ARMENIA AND AFTER HE SUCCEEDED
IN EDESSA HE MARRIED ARDA, THE GRANDDAUGHTER OF THE ARMENIAN
RUBENID PRINCE CONSTANTINE, WHILE BALDWIN OF BOURCQ MARRIED
MORPHIA, THE DAUGHTER OF GABRIEL OF MELITENE [MALATIA/MALATYA], AND
JOSCELIN OF COURTENAY MARRIED THE DAUGHTER OF PRINCE CONSTANTINE OF
ARMENIA. AS WAS NOTED THIS TRADITION CONTINUED WELL INTO LATE MIDDLE AGES
AND EVEN TODAY THE ARMENIAN ARISTOCRATIC LINEAGE IS PART AND PARCEL TO
THIS VERY DAY OF MANY OF THE ROYAL HOUSES OF EUROPE.

ARMENIAN FOOT SOLDIER FROM A 1270 MANUSCRIPT.
THE SUN AND THE MOON OF DESTINY ABOVE.


GOSPEL [1255]. GOLDEN COVER WITH FINE EXECUTION OF HIGH ORDER BY THE
ARMENIAN MASTER GOLDSMITHS.


ONE OF THE ROYAL SEALS/COINS OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT.
CROSS OF LORRAINE WITH FLANKING PENTAGRAMS.
SOLAR CROSS AT THE TOP.


THE INTERNATIONALLY RENOWNED TAGAVORKANS OF LEVON
THE MAGNIFICENT BECAME THE ERA'S PREFERRED CHOICE OF INTERNATIONAL
CURRENCY EVEN PASSING THE VALUE OF VENETIAN DUCATS.
RUBENID INSIGNIA TWO LIONS FACING THE PATRIARCHAL/CROSS OF LORRAINE.
THE KING SEATED UPON THE DOUBLE LION THRONE [LIKE PRIMORDIAL GODDESS
AYA FROM ATAL HYK] HOLDING THE SCEPTER [RIGHT] AND THE FLEUR-DE-LYS
[LEFT]. SOLAR SPLIT [FISH TAIL...EA-HAYA] MALTESE CROSS SEP. THE WRAPPING
INSCRIPTION BETWEEN TWO CIRCLES.



Ruben I (1080-1095)
Constantine I (1095-1100)
Toros I (1100-1129)
Levon I (1129-1137)
Toros II (1145-1169)
Ruben II (1169)
Mleh (1169-1175)
Ruben III (1175-1187)
Levon II the Magnificent (1187-1219)



THE ROYAL SEAL OF LEVON THE MAGNIFICENT
REPLICA OF THE OBVERSE AND REVERSE
SIDES OF THE GOLDEN TAGAVORAKAN


S I G N A T U R E  O F   K I N G  L E V O N  T H E  M A G N I F I C E N T

THE RUBENID DYNASTY